Human Parvovirus B19 has previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumors, but this could not have been confirmed. This study was designed to investigate the testicular persistence of Parvovirus B19 and possible associations with germ cell tumors. Paraffin-embedded or fresh tissues from 36 germ cell tumors, 20 germ cell aplasias, 26 normal testicular tissues, 20 liver tissues, and 20 spleen tissues were evaluated by two different molecular assays: a nested PCR for Parvovirus B19 capsid genes and a commercial quantitative real-tin-Le PCR. Positive results were further confirmed by another commercial real-time PCR assay. Viral DNA was detected in 3 of 36 (8.3%) germ cell tumors, but not in other groups. Viral loads observed in all positive samples were less than 20 IU/reaction, suggesting very low levels of viral replication or latency. These results either directly or indirectly imply the involvement of Parvovirus B19 with testicular germ cell tumors. Viral persistence in normal testis, germ cell aplasia tissues, or hepatic/splenic tissues was not observed in this study. (C) 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.