Comparison of Microdilution and Disk Diffusion Methods for the Detection of Fluconazole and Voriconazole Susceptibility Against Clinical Candida glabrata Isolates and Determination of Changing Susceptibility with New CLSI Breakpoints


MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI, vol.50, no.3, pp.428-437, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 50 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.5578/mb.26544
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.428-437
  • Keywords: Candida glabrata, fluconazole, voriconazole, in vitro susceptibility, microdilution, disk diffusion, CLSI M27-A3, CLSI M44-A2, ECHINOCANDIN, YEAST, SPP.
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species as the causative agent of Candida infections. However, in recent years, the isolation rate of non-albicans Candida species have increased. In many centers, Candida glabrata is one of the commonly isolated non-albicans species of C.glabrata infections which are difficult-to-treat due to decreased susceptibility to fluconazole and cross-resistance to other azoles. The aims of this study were to determine the in vitro susceptibility profiles of clinical C.glabrata isolates against fluconazole and voriconazole by microdilution and disk diffusion methods and to evaluate the results with both the previous (CLSI) and current species-specific CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) clinical breakpoints. A total of 70 C.glabrata strains isolated from clinical samples were included in the study. The identification of the isolates was performed by morphologic examination on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and assimilation profiles obtained by using ID32C (BioMerieux, France). Broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods were performed according to CLSI M27-A3 and CLSI M44-A2 documents, respectively. The results were evaluated according to CLSI M27-A3 and M44-A2 documents and new vs. species-specific CLSI breakpoints. By using both previous and new CLSI breakpoints, broth microdilution test results showed that voriconazole has greater in vitro activity than fluconazole against C.glabrata isolates. For the two drugs tested, very major error was not observed with disk diffusion method when microdilution method was considered as the reference method. Since "susceptible" category no more exists for fluconazole vs. C.glabrata, the isolates that were interpreted as susceptible by previous breakpoints were evaluated as susceptible-dose dependent by current CLSI breakpoints. Since species-specific breakpoints remain yet undetermined for voriconazole, comparative analysis was not possible for this agent. The results obtained at 24 hours by disk diffusion method were evaluated by using both previous and current CLSI breakpoints and the agreement rates for fluconazole and voriconazole were 80% and 92.8% with previous CLSI breakpoint, 87.1% and 94.2% with new breakpoints, respectively. The high agreement rates between the two methods obtained by the new breakpoints in particular suggest that disk diffusion appears as a reliable alternative method in general for in vitro susceptibility testing of fluconazole and voriconazole against C.glabrata isolates.