A Conformal Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna with Multiband and Wideband Characteristics

Hussain N., Ghaffar A., Naqvi S. I., Iftikhar A., Anagnostou D. E., Tran H. H.

SENSORS, vol.22, no.7, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/s22072601
  • Journal Name: SENSORS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: compact antenna, frequency reconfigurable, multiband, conformal antenna, MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA, DESIGN, SWITCH, WLAN
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: No


A compact flexible multi-frequency antenna for smart portable and flexible devices is presented. The antenna consists of a coplanar waveguide-fed slotted circular patch connected to a rectangular secondary resonator (stub). A thin low-loss substrate is used for flexibility, and a rectangular stub in the feedline is deployed to attain wide operational bandwidth. A rectangular slot is etched in the middle of the circular patch, and a p-i-n diode is placed at its center. The frequency reconfigurability is achieved through switching the diode that distributes the current by changing the antenna's electrical length. For the ON state, the antenna operates in the UWB region for -10 dB impedance bandwidth from 2.76 to 8.21 GHz. For the OFF state of the diode, the antenna operates at the ISM band (2.45/5.8 GHz), WLAN band (5.2 GHz), and lower X-band (8 GHz) with a minimum gain of 2.49 dBi and a maximum gain of 5.8 dBi at the 8 GHz band. Moreover, the antenna retains its performance in various bending conditions. The proposed antenna is suitable for modern miniaturized wireless electronic devices such as wearables, health monitoring sensors, mobile Internet devices, and laptops that operate at multiple frequency bands.