The effects of dough formula and baking conditions on the formations of acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were studied in a cookie model system. Increasing the sugar concentration in the dough formula increased acrylamide formation during baking at 205 degrees C for 11 min. The effect of sugar on acrylamide formation was more pronounced for glucose than for sucrose.. expectedly. Addition of citric acid into dough formula comprising sucrose increased the susceptibility of acrylamide formation, while it decreased acrylamide formation in the dough formula comprising glucose. Decreasing the pH of dough formula increased the tendency to surface browning and the formation of hydroxymethylfurfural in cookies during baking. The results suggest that a cookie with acceptable texture and colour, but having less than 150 ng/g of acrylamide, can be manufactured by lowering the baking temperature and avoiding reducing sugars in the recipe. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.