An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in the right mandibular condyle and ramus of a 37-year-old woman was surgically resected and immediately reconstructed with a costochondral graft. She was followed up for 5 years. A review of the 10 cases of condylar-ABC available in the literature revealed mean age of 16.8 (+/- 7.6) years, with equal distribution between men and women. In all cases symptoms included swelling and asymmetry, while temporomandibular disorder/dysfunction symptoms were reported in 50%. Parasthesia was not reported, except for self-limited postoperative neuropathy. Curettage or resection was employed equally and recurrence rates were 60% after curettage, 20% after resection; which are higher than reported in non-condylar-ABC's. All recurrences occurred within 12 months. Thus close postoperative follow up, for at least 12 months, is warranted. (C) 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery.