Camelina sativa (false flax or gold-of-pleasure) is an Old World oilseed crop that fell out of use in the mid 20th Century but has recently gained renewed interest as a biofuel source. The crop is hexaploid, and its relationship to its diploid and polyploid congeners has remained unresolved. Using 54 accessions representing five species sampled across Camelina's center of diversity in Turkey and the Caucasus, we performed phylogenetic and genetic diversity analyses using RADseq genotyping and ITS sequencing. Flow cytometry was performed to assess relationships between genome size and phylogenetic groupings. Accessions fell into distinct, highly-supported clades that accord with named species, indicating that morphological characters can reliably distinguish members of the genus. A phylogenetically distinct lineage from Turkey may represent a currently unrecognized diploid species. In most analyses, C. sativa accessions nest within those of C. microcarpa, suggesting that the crop is descended from this wild hexaploid species. This inference is further supported by their similar genome size, and by lower genetic diversity in C. sativa, which is consistent with a domestication bottleneck. These analyses provide the first definitive phylogeny of C. sativa and its wild relatives, and they point to C. microcarpa as the crop's wild ancestor.