This study considers the theoretical basis of comparative education. The results presented here were obtained through literature review. This study first considers what comparative education is, and provides information about the field of comparative education. It then examines the historical and hypothetical development of comparative education in the world and provides brief information of the comparative education studies in Turkey. It also, by providing details on some important centers operating in this field, proposes the establishment of a similar committee or centre in Turkey as well. (c) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.