Engineering characteristics of Ankara Greywacke under the foundation of the Beytepe open air theatre, Ankara, Turkey

Sonmez H., Gurkan B., Sonmez B.

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY, vol.55, no.3, pp.485-497, 2008 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 55 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00254-007-0994-1
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.485-497
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The construction of a large open air theatre having with an audience capacity of 7,000 is planned at the Beytepe Campus of Hacettepe University located near Ankara, Turkey, in the heart of Anatolia. The foundation of the open air theatre is composed of weak and heavily jointed Ankara Greywacke. An estimation of the strength and deformation of the Ankara Greywacke was required for assessments of short- and long-term stability. Accordingly, rock mass characterization of the Ankara Greywacke was investigated in detail by scan-line surveys and back-analyses of in situ tests performed on the excavated surface of the rock mass. The final version of the Hoek and Brown Criterion (Hoek et al., In: Proceedings of the north American rock mechanics society meeting, Toronto, Canada, pp 1-6, 2002) together with and improvements proposed by Sonmez and Gokceoglu (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci, 43:671-676, 2006) were considered together for the back analyses of small slope benches subjected to plate loading test loaded to failure. In addition, the plate loading test data were used with some well-known empirical equations for predicting of deformation modulus of rock masses to calculate ranges of values of the Geological Strength Index (GSI) The static and pseudostatic slope stabilities of the audience seating structures to be supported by benches excavated into the rock were also analyzed. The stability assessments revealed the unlikelihood of large rock mass failures for the short-term construction stages or for the long-term, as-constructed conditions under static or pseudo-static conditions. Additionally, the analyses showed that there was no need for anchors between the concrete seating structures and greywacke rock mass.