Background: The medicinal use of maggots for the biological debridement of chronic wounds is increasing around the world, due to its efficacy, safety and simplicity. Thousands of patients have been treated in private and governmental hospitals during the last 10 years. Objective: To examine the efficacy of maggot debridement therapy (MDT) in the debridement of chronic wounds in a military hospital. Methods: MDT was applied for 1 - 9 days to 7 male and 4 female soldiers or their family members (21 - 72 years old) with chronic wounds. Results: Complete debridement was achieved in 10 out of 11 patients, while in 1 patient the wound could be cleaned only partially. A remarkable reduction in the odor emanating from the wound and notable granulation were observed in all debrided wounds. Increased pain was observed in 1 patient with a venous stasis ulcer. Conclusion: We believe that MDT is a rapid and effective method for the debridement of chronic wounds in a military environment especially in times of war in developing countries. Copyright (C) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.