In the present study, laser straight cutting of alumina tiles is carried out. Temperature and thermal stress fields developed in the cutting section are modeled and predicted through the finite element method. The geometric features of the cut sections are examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Temperature predictions are validated with the thermocouple data. The X-ray diffraction technique is incorporated to measure the residual stress at the cut surface vicinity. It is found that the residual stress predicted agrees with that obtained from the X-ray diffraction technique. Striation patterns formed at the kerf surface have shallow depths because of the low thermal conductivity and high melting temperature of the workpiece. Dross attachment is observed at the bottom surface of the cut edges.