Evaluation of gingival porcelains: Color change and surface properties

Batyrbekova G., Hekimoğlu C.

Journal of Prosthodontics, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/jopr.13779
  • Journal Name: Journal of Prosthodontics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, MEDLINE
  • Keywords: color stability, gingival porcelain, surface roughness, thermal cycling, translucency
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal cycling (TC) on the color stability, translucency, and surface roughness of two different gingival porcelain materials. Materials and Methods: The gingival porcelains IPS e.max Ceram Gingiva (Ceram) and IPS InLine Gingiva (InLine) were tested. A total of 66 disc-shaped specimens were prepared and glazed using porcelain powders of G1, G3, and G5 colors. The samples were divided into two porcelain groups by their types and into three subgroups (n11) by their colors. Thermal cycling was performed at 6000 cycles simulating an oral environment of 5 years. The color and surface roughness measurements of the samples were made before and after the thermal cycling. Color measurements were made with a spectrophotometer. Surface roughness (mean surface roughness [Ra; μm]) was measured using a contact profilometer. Data before thermal cycling were evaluated using the Kruskal‒Wallis test followed by the Dunn Bonferonni paired comparison test. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measurements and a pairwise comparison test with Bonferroni correction were used to evaluate the change in roughness and translucency parameter (TP) data between groups due to thermal cycling. Results: The color change was below the clinically perceptible color change threshold (∆E00 = 2.1) in all groups after thermal cycling. However, all materials had significantly increased roughness (p < 0.05). An increase in roughness was detected in the Ceram group and was higher than that in the InLine group. The change in the translucency parameters of the samples after thermal cycling was not statistically significant; a small increase was observed in all groups. The highest translucency values ​​were seen in the G1, G3, and G5 colors. Conclusions: Thermal cycling caused a significant increase in the roughness values ​​(Ra) of all materials and a minimal increase in their translucency. The color change of gingival porcelains after thermal cycling was less than the clinically perceptible threshold.