The Neogene Soma Basin, western Turkey, hosts three coal seams (kM2, kM3 and kPl) and several altered tuff layers within the Miocene sequences. This study focuses on the evaluation of coal-petrography, mineralogical and elemental compositions, as well as the Rock-Eval pyrolysis of the three coal seams from Eynez, Isiklar and Denis sectors, and to identify the mineralogy of altered tuff layers within kM2 and kPl seams. The routine coal quality analyses show that coal samples from the kM2 seam are characterized by lower ash yields and total S contents, and higher gross calorific values than kM3 and kPl seams. The mineralogical composition of the bulk coal samples varies between all three seams. The statistical treatment implies that major elements in bulk coal samples such as Al, Fe, K, Mg and Na, and the vast majority of minor and trace elements have inorganic affinity. The trace element contents and elemental enrichments in the coal samples are generally changeable from seam to seam, which could be related to differences in ash yield and mineralogy. Altered tuff layers, or tonsteins were identified in kM2 and kPl seams. The tonsteins are clay rich, and certain trace elements (e.g. As and Zr) are enriched in the coal layers beneath the tuff layers in the kM2 seam. This might be related to penetration of leached pore water into these layers and precipitation of epigenetic minerals.