JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING, vol.29, no.4, pp.265-276, 2017 (ESCI)
The purpose of this research is to improve the existing stimuli-based consumer confusion scales to include confusion that stems from personal characteristics and situational factors. Besides literature review, focus group interviews were conducted to identify the items and a pilot study was carried out for scale purification. The simplified questionnaire is administered to 510 consumers. The items loaded on four factors, namely; confusion by the existence-opinions of others, confusion by personal characteristics, price, and product confusion, respectively. Confirmatory Factor Analysis has been performed to test the model and the reliability and validity of the proposed scale. The model fit and reliability levels are acceptable, and convergent and discriminant validities of the scale are also supported. The results of second-order measurement model test show that confusion mostly stems from personal characteristics, which is compatible with the aim of the study.