Poland syndrome has been sporadically associated with hematological conditions, primarily acute leukemias. The authors report a child with this syndrome coexisting with temporary hematological dysplasia due to iron deficiency. Further hematological evaluation failed to demonstrate malignancy. Because of its premalignant nature, in patients with Poland syndrome, hematological dysplastic features should be an indication for further investigation. However, in addition to the well-known hematological malignancies, treatable causes may be responsible.