Strontium ranelate is claimed to be related with increased risk of thromboembolic events. No explanation of this increased incidence of thromboembolism has been identified. However, growing evidence has clearly demonstrated the involvement of blood rheology in any thrombotic process. The aim of this study was to assess hemorheological changes with strontium ranelate treatment in elderly women with osteoporosis. This study was designed in a prospective manner. Twenty-two elderly women diagnosed with osteoporosis were included. During a 2-month treatment period, participants received strontium ranelate 2 g/day. Hemorheological parameters including erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity were measured before and after 2 months therapy with strontium ranelate. The median age of the patients was 70.0 (range = 65-80) years. After 60 days of treatment, there was no statistically significant change in hemorheological parameters. None of the subjects developed clinical venous thromboembolic event (VTE) during the 2-month period of strontium ranelate treatment. Our study demonstrated that in elderly women, treatment of osteoporosis with strontium ranelate did not change hemorheological parameters over 2 months of time. However, its long-term effects on hemorheologic parameters should be evaluated further with a larger sample. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.