JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, vol.45, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)
The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of coffee on the liver. The results show that coffee has beneficial effects on the liver and can reduce liver disease progression due to its antioxidant properties. Coffee contains antioxidant capacities of chlorogenic acid, hydrophilic components, hydrophobic components, lactones, and diterpenes. There are also rich amounts of potassium and magnesium in coffee. Roasting of the green coffee beans at high temperatures will make unique components due to the chemical reactions between carbohydrates and amino acids as Maillard reactions. Caffeine with a purine derivative is found in several dietary sources, including tea, chocolate bars, coffee, cocoa beverages, energy, and soft drinks. Caffeine can pass all biological membranes due to the hydrophobic properties of caffeine. Three primary metabolites, such as theophylline, theobromine, and paraxanthine, are caused by metabolizing caffeine in the liver. Caffeine at normal consumption doses mainly acts among humans as an antagonist of adenosine receptors. Two cups of coffee per day should be consumed to show its beneficial effects. Coffee drinkers experience a lower incidence of advanced cirrhosis and fibrosis. There are also differences between males and females in their responses to caffeine due to changes in circulating steroid hormones.