Background. Benzodiazepines (BZs) can impair explicit memory after a single dose and also when taken repeatedly for treatment of anxiety disorders. A previous study with agoraphobia/panic patients found that the BZ alprazolam impaired memory during an 8-week treatment and residual impairments were still manifest several weeks after drug withdrawal (Curran et al. 1994). The present study followed up the same group of patients 3.5 years after treatment to determine whether those memory impairments persisted.