Common variable immune deficiency associated Hodgkin's lymphoma complicated with EBV-linked hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a case report


Malkan Ü. Y. , GÜNEŞ G., Aslan T., ETGÜL S., Aydin S., BÜYÜKAŞIK Y.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, vol.8, no.8, pp.14203-14206, 2015 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 8 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Journal Name: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.14203-14206
  • Keywords: Common variable immune deficiency, Hodgkin's lymphoma, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, EPSTEIN-BARR-VIRUS, T-CELL LYMPHOMA, DISORDER, INFECTION, DIAGNOSIS

Abstract

Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is described by an increase in macrophages accountable for extensive phagocytosis of hematopoietic cells. Secondary HPS arises commonly in the presence of infections, neoplasia, autoimmune disorders and immune disorders. Here, we reported a patient with common variable immune deficiency (CVID) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) who later developed EBV linked hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. 42 year old men underwent check-up because of back pain in July 2012. He had known CVID disease. In physical examination he had no lymphadenopathies however his spleen was palpable 3 cm under arcus costa. He had hypogammaglobulinemia with IgG levels around 500 mg/dl. In abdominal computed tomography (CT) multiple lymphadenopathies reaching maximum 26x17 cm size were seen so, PET-CT was performed. Involvement in thorax, abdomen, and bone was detected with maximum SUV max 11.5. He had undergone tru-cut biopsy from lymph node in November 2012 which revealed HL. Bone marrow investigation favored with mix cell type. His cytogenetic analysis was reported as 46 XY. He was considered as stage 4 disease and ABVD (Adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine and dexamethasone). He was given six cycles of chemotherapy in May 2013 and complete remission was observed in control CT screening in July 2013. However pancytopenia evolved in August 2013. Bone marrow investigation revealed suspicious lymphohistiocytic infiltration. Treatment was planned to apply autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) after salvage chemotherapy. Control bone marrow investigation again revealed the lymphohistiocytic aggregates with hemophagocytosis. Our patient showed 5 criteria of hemophagocytic syndrome. He had ferritin elevation (>5000 mu g/dl), splenomegaly (13 cm) cytopenia, triglyceride elevation and hemophagocytosis. He had unrelated SCT transplantation however he died from transplant related toxicity. The primary and secondary immune deficiency caused by chemotherapy are the major causes for our patient inability to control his EBV infection which eventually lead to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. To conclude, rare simultaneous manifestation of primary immune deficiencies (PID), Hodgkin's lymphoma and EBV-HLH occurred in our patient which have concordant immunological mechanism that eventually lead poor prognosis in our patient.