The spleen plays an important role in the immunological homeostasis of the body. Several neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases may affect this organ, and imaging is of fundamental importance for diagnosis. Infectious diseases of the spleen can be encountered in daily radiology practice, and differential diagnosis may sometimes be challenging. Infectious involvement of the spleen can be primary or secondary to a different source outside the spleen. Despite the fact that different infectious diseases may cause similar imaging findings, we believe that differential diagnosis between different causes may also be possible in certain patients with imaging. Early diagnosis may potentially enhance patients' treatment and outcome. In this review, we aimed to increase imaging specialists' awareness of splenic infections by describing the multimodality imaging features of common and atypical infections of the spleen with their differential diagnoses.