Between June 2009 and December 2013, 4105 patients were screened for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) colonization in a tertiary care university hospital. The antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance determinants of 279 (6.8%) CR-Kp isolates from single patients were investigated. Additional analysis was performed to evaluate the characteristics and various risk factors for infection in patients with colonization. Of the 279 isolates, 270 harboured OXA-48-like enzymes, and a single isolate harboured IMP-type carbapenemase. A high proportion of isolates were susceptible to carbapenems - except ertapenem. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin and most (94%) were susceptible to colistin and fosfomycin. There was consistent high-level resistance for all isolates to temocillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and ticarcillin-clavulanate. When colonized and infected patients were compared, only prior carbapenem administration (P = 0.003), was found to be significantly associated with patients with CR-Kp infection. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.