Copy number variations in subtelomeric regions of chromosomes 17 and 20 are associated with intellectual disability and various systemic manifestations. Microarray analysis allows identification of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities and is applicable to elucidate the etiology of cognitive impairment in approximately one-fifth of the cases. In the present study, we report on 3 male children from 2 sisters, who suffered from intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and epilepsy. Despite the initial suggestion of an X-linked inheritance, the condition was associated with 17q25.3 duplication and concomitant 20q13.33 deletion, as detected by microarray analysis. Coexistence of a deletion and a duplication suggests unbalanced segregation of a parental balanced translocation. Further investigations revealed maternal balanced translocations, which resulted in copy number aberrations in the children following unbalanced segregations. The work-up underlined the importance of genomic screening using microarrays as the first-tier diagnostic tool in intellectual disability, despite an apparent X-linked segregation in the pedigree.