The removal of petroleum and petroleum-based products from the environment is of great importance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the most suitable physiological conditions and the effects of additional carbon, nitrogen and surfactant sources on petroleum biodegradation by Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC13883 isolated from drilling fluid and to evaluate petroleum biodegradation with detailed hydrocarbon analysis by GC-MS. The results indicated that the highest biodegradation rate of 66.5% for K. pneumoniae was obtained under the conditions of pH 7, petroleum concentration 1% (v/v) and 7-day incubation at 150rpm and 25 degrees C, proving to be the most effective physical conditions for petroleum biodegradation in this present study. Additional sources such as Triton X: 100, glucose and yeast extract significantly enhanced the petroleum biodegradation of K. pneumoniae to 68, 71 and 72.5%, respectively. In the last stage of this study, biodegradation rates were above 90% for hydrocarbons ranging from C-10 and C-20, above 70% for hydrocarbons ranging from C-21 and C-22 and above 40% for hydrocarbons ranging from C-31 and C-32. In conclusion, oil field adapted K. pneumoniae could efficiently degrade short-, medium- and long-chain alkanes in petroleum and thus is a potential source for advanced petroleum treatment.