Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of four different surgical techniques on the primary stability of short implants in two sizes (4-mm and 6-mm length) through resonance frequency analysis and insertion torque measurement in vitro. Materials and Methods: Forty implant site preparations and implant insertions were performed in pig ribs. Guided surgery, bone condensing, conventional drilling, and undersized preparation surgical techniques were used five times in each bone block to prepare 4-mm/6-mm-length implant beds. The maximum insertion torque and implant stability quotient (ISQ) values were recorded for each implant. Results: Both the ISQ and torque differed significantly for various surgical techniques (P = .009 and P < .001). The conventional technique had higher ISQ (79.00), whereas the condenser technique had higher torque (48.00 Ncm) than did the other techniques. The mean torque was significantly higher in all surgical techniques other than the guided surgery group regardless of implant length (P < .01 for all). Implant lengths were not significantly different in terms of ISO and torque in all surgical techniques. Conclusion: There are significant correlations between the implant bed preparation technique and primary implant stability when using short implants. Conventional surgery and the bone condensing technique are favorable alternatives with higher primary stability and torque values in short implants.