Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer: Environment, Genes and Infections—Is It All?

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YAZICI M. S., Del Biondo D., Napodano G., Grillo M., Calace F. P., Prezioso D., ...More

Medicina (Lithuania), vol.59, no.4, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 59 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/medicina59040724
  • Journal Name: Medicina (Lithuania)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: andrology, environment, genetics, infections, risk factor, testicular cancer, urology
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The incidence of testicular cancer is steadily increasing over the past several decades in different developed countries. If on one side better diagnosis and treatment have shone a light on this disease, on the other side, differently from other malignant diseases, few risk factors have been identified. The reasons for the increase in testicular cancer are however unknown while risk factors are still poorly understood. Several studies have suggested that exposure to various factors in adolescence as well as in adulthood could be linked to the development of testicular cancer. Nevertheless, the role of environment, infections, and occupational exposure are undoubtedly associated with an increase or a decrease in this risk. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the most recent evidence regarding the risk factors associated with testicular cancer, starting from the most commonly evaluated (cryptorchidism, family history, infections) to the newer identified and hypothesized risk factors.