Hepatic transporter-mediated pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions: Recent studies and regulatory recommendations


BIOPHARMACEUTICS & DRUG DISPOSITION, vol.42, pp.45-77, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 42
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/bdd.2262
  • Page Numbers: pp.45-77


Transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions are one of the major mechanisms in pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions and correspondingly affecting drugs' safety and efficacy. Regulatory bodies underlined the importance of the evaluation of transporter-mediated interactions as a part of the drug development process. The liver is responsible for the elimination of a wide range of endogenous and exogenous compounds via metabolism and biliary excretion. Therefore, hepatic uptake transporters, expressed on the sinusoidal membranes of hepatocytes, and efflux transporters mediating the transport from hepatocytes to the bile are determinant factors for pharmacokinetics of drugs, and hence, drug-drug interactions. In parallel with the growing research interest in this area, regulatory guidances have been updated with detailed assay models and criteria. According to well-established preclinical results, observed or expected hepatic transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions can be taken into account for clinical studies. In this paper, various methods including in vitro, in situ, in vivo, in silico approaches, and combinational concepts and several clinical studies on the assessment of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions were reviewed. Informative and effective evaluation by preclinical tools together with the integration of pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation can reduce unexpected clinical outcomes and enhance the success rate in drug development.