The primary aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Online Learning Environment Survey (OLES) in postsecondary distance education. The OLES is a 54 item instrument for assessing social-psychological perceptions among distance education students. The second aim was to investigate empirically perception of the online learning environment in Turkish context. This paper consisted of three models explaining online learning environments in the Turkish context. Model I, based on relations of originally item-construct reported by Trinidad, Aldridge & Fraser, (2004), was analyzed with gathered data from Turkey setting by the translation, adaptation, and validation of the Online Learning Environment Survey (OLES) (Trinidad, Aldridge & Fraser, 2004) in a new Turkish-language form. In Model I, the OLES was designed to measure nine dimensions of online educational environment. The fit of the proposed multidimensional factor structure was examined with 902 post-secondary distance education students in two institutions. Model II, based on relations of emprically item-construct which were obtained with principal component analysis, was investigated with first-order confirmatory factor analysis. Model II consist of twelve subconstructs. Model III, with a higher-order construct with twelve first-order factors of OLES-TR, was perfectly represented as a general online learning environments trait rather than the OLES.