Updated assessment on tularemia Tularemi: Güncel deǧerlendirmeler

Creative Commons License

Arslanyilmaz M., ASLAN D. , AKIN L. , Aktaş D.

Turk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi, vol.71, no.2, pp.99-106, 2014 (Refereed Journals of Other Institutions) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 71 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.5505/turkhijyen.2014.50490
  • Title of Journal : Turk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi
  • Page Numbers: pp.99-106


Tularemia is a zoonotic infectious disease which is caused by a Gram negative coco basil named Francisella tularensis mostly found in the Northern hemisphere. F. tularensis is a resistant bacteria that can survive in cold and moist environment for weeks. However it is susceptible to sun light and high degrees of heat, and it can't live in chlorinated water. It is known that illness can be transmitted by either direct or indirect ways, however, epidemics occur when the agent is orally taken. In Turkey, especially laboratory workers, farmers, veterinary surgeons, hunters are majorly at risk as tularemia is transmitted by contagious water sources. F. tularensis grows in 2-5 days at 35°C, in medium. For diagnosis, frequently used methods are serologic tests. In early phases, methods like PCR, immunfluorescent antibody testing and direct antigen detection can be used. Clinical findings can vary due to patient's immunity status, severity of systemic spread, virulence of bacteria, etc. The most frequent form of tularemia is ulceroglandular form that is a painless ulcer, adjacent to a cutaneous lesion, accompanied by regional lymphadenitis. Other clinical forms are known as glandular, oculoglandular, oropharyngeal, respiratory and typhoidal tularemia. Endemic regions of tularemia are; Canada, Mexico, former Soviet Union countries, Tunisia, Turkey, Israel, Iran, China, and Japan worldwide. Tularemia cases have been reported since 1936. Based on reported cases, tularemia morbidity was determined as eight in one billion in 2012. The highest number of the reported cases occurred in March between 2005 and 2012. Tularemia is a Group C notifiable disease according to Notification System of Infectious Diseases since 2005. Tularemia is considered as 'dangerous' in terms of bio-terrorism. In public health perspective, prevention strategies are recommended to be disseminated among community, risk groups and health professionals.