The phylogenetic relationships among gudgeons that represent most nominal taxa within Gobio gobio sensu lato were examined by mitochondrial and nuclear genome sequencing. The molecular analyses confirmed the separate generic status of Gobio as a monophyletic group and revealed 15 Eurasian lineages divided into two main clades, the Northern European and the Ponto-Caspian. The validity of eleven nominal taxa as distinct species was confirmed, gudgeons from the Volga River basin were described as a new species G. volgensis, and three revealed phylogenetic lineages were submitted for a comprehensive revision as "species-in-waiting". The species G. gobio showed a wide range extending from the British Isles to the Black Sea coast and overlapped the areas of several other species. Four pure lineages were detected in the middle Danube River basin. The Crimean Peninsula was found to be a region with the occurrence of individuals of hybrid origin. This region will require special investigation to define species participating in hybridization events, and to establish further steps for the conservation of endemic native gudgeon species. A simple diagnostic method, based on different lengths of the PCR products, called "S7indel diagnostics" is presented for further taxonomic investigations in the genus Gobio. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.