The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of propolis samples collected from different regions of Turkey against anaerobic bacteria causing especially oral cavity infections. A total of eleven anaerobic bacterial strains have been tested in this study. The strains were tested by agar dilution method for detecting minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and by macro dilution broth method for detecting minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Turkish propolis samples were found highly effective against all tested anaerobic bacteria compared with ethanol control, without statistical differences. The MIC and MBC of propolis samples ranged from 0.4-0.6 mg/ml to 108.1-186.2 mg/ml, respectively. Actinomyces odontolyticus was the most susceptible strains; whereas Prevotella intermedia was was the least susceptible strain to all tested propolis samples. Ilic/Erzincan (ER-I) propolis sample was the more effective against all tested anaerobic bacteria; whereas Bartin (BA) propolis sample was the less effective. Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria were detected to be the most sensitive to propolis samples; with the MIC values ranging from 0.4 to 6.1 mg/ml compared with Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria with MIC ranging from 5.8 to 108.1 mg/ml (P<0.05). As a result of, Turkish propolis samples had antibacterial activity against anaerobic bacteria especially causing oral cavity infections. Because of the high rate of resistance of the anaerobic bacteria isolated from oral cavity infections, standardized preparations of propolis are suggested to use in treatment of this kind of infections. However, further studies are needed to be performed on the clinical applications of propolis in oral cavity infections.