To translate and culturally adapt the shoulder instability-return to sport after injury (SI-RSI) scale into Turkish (SI-RSI-Tr) and examine the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of athletes following a traumatic shoulder instability. The SI-RSI was translated into Turkish using Beaton guidelines. Sixty-nine patients with shoulder instability completed the translated SI-RSI, Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), and the Walch-Duplay Scores. We analysed the internal consistency, agreement, reliability, and validity of the SI-RSI-Tr. The SI-RSI-Tr demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92), test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.95), and feasibility with no ceiling or floor effect. SI-RSI-Tr correlated with WOSI total score (r = -0.824, p < 0.001), its subscales: WOSI-physical (r = -0.683, p < 0.001), WOSI-sports (r = -0.832, p < 0.001), WOSI-lifestyle (r = -0.739, p < 0.001), and WOSI-emotions (r = -0.734, p < 0.001) respectively), Walch-Duplay (r = 0.840, p < 0.001) and TSK (r = -0.828, p < 0.001) scores. The Turkish SI-RSI is a reliable, internally consistent, and valid tool for athletes with shoulder instability. Researchers and clinicians could safely use the SIRSI-Tr to evaluate the shoulder-specific psychological factors on return to sports following an episode of shoulder instability.