Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, vol.29, no.1, pp.105-123, 2018 (SCI-Expanded)
Article / Review
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
Cervical dystonia, Muscle, Ultrasound, Botulinum toxin, Innervation zone, BASIC SCANNING PROTOCOLS, STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID MUSCLE, TRAPEZIUS MUSCLE, INNERVATION ZONES, SCALENE MUSCLES, GUIDANCE, ANATOMY, COMPARTMENTALIZATION, ULTRASOUND, MANAGEMENT
Hacettepe University Affiliated:
© 2017 Elsevier Inc.Intramuscular botulinum toxin (BoTX) injection is the first-line treatment of cervical dystonia. Poor treatment outcomes and some side effects, however, have been reported after BoTX applications. One of the most important reasons is incorrect localization of the needle during toxin injections. Without imaging, it is impossible to verify precise needle positioning in the proper muscle. Ultrasound has been recommended because of its high capability in illustrating most of the neck muscles. This review article discusses how ultrasound imaging can be used to scan/access neck muscles, mainly from the perspective of BoTX injections.