Antibacterial Activity and Biofilm Inhibition of New-Generation Hybrid/Fluoride-Releasing Restorative Materials

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ÇİFTCİ S., KOÇ VURAL U., ATALAY C., Tassery H., Miletic I., GÜRPINAR S. S.

APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL, vol.12, no.5, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/app12052434
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: fluoride-releasing materials, antibacterial activity, biofilm formation, surface roughness, S, mutans, L, casei, GLASS-IONOMER CEMENTS, FLUORIDE RELEASE, BACTERIAL-COLONIZATION, COMPOMER, ADHESION, CONTACT, SYSTEM
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The antibacterial activity, and the effect of the application of additional topical fluoride on the bacterial activity, biofilm formation, and surface roughness of new-generation hybrid/fluoride-releasing materials were investigated. Two hundred and forty specimens were prepared in split Teflon molds (8 x 2 mm) from a resin composite (as negative control: G-aenial A'Chord/GC), Equia Forte HT Fil(GC), Equia Forte HT Fil+Equia Forte Coat, Riva Self-Cure (SDI), Riva Self-Cure+Equia Forte Coat, Zirconomer (Shofu), Beautifil II (Shofu), and Riva Silver (Shofu). Penicillin G,1U was used as positive control. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the agar diffusion test immediately after the materials set using Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus casei (L. casei), and repeated after application of 0.20% w/w (900 ppm) topical fluoride. The biofilm formation of S. mutans on each material was quantified by crystal violet staining. Surface roughness of the specimens was measured by a profilometer. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn's, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey's HSD tests (p < 0.05). None of the tested restorative materials showed antibacterial activity and no inhibition zones were observed after treatment of the restoratives with additional topical fluoride. There were significant differences among the groups in terms of biofilm formation (p < 0.005). Equia Forte HT Fil with and without coating showed the lowest, while Riva self-cure without coating and Zirconomer showed the highest biofilm accumulation. None of the new-generation hybrid/fluoride-releasing materials demonstrated antibacterial activity and additional topical fluoride application did not make any change. Biofilm formation of the tested materials differed. All tested materials showed different surface roughness values (p < 0.005). Characteristics and compositions of the materials seemed to be more effective than the surface roughness.