Objective To investigate the effect of anthropometric measurements on serum adiponectin and inflammatory markers in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods This study was conducted with 46 subjects newly diagnosed with T2DM and 30 healthy volunteers free from pre-existing inflammatory disease, cancer, Type 1 diabetes and using any medications. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected. The anthropometric measurements and insulin resistance components (fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR) were analyzed. HOMA-beta values were calculated to measure pancreatic beta cell functions. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured to determine the presence of inflammation and serum adiponectin levels were assessed. Results Individuals with T2DM showed higher body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio values. Serum cytokine levels were higher but adiponectin levels were lower in diabetic patients. Serum concentrations of CRP were found to be significantly correlated with WC and body fat mass (kg and %); TNF-alpha was significantly associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio in individuals with T2DM. Adiponectin was negatively correlated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio in healthy subjects. Conclusions Prevention of obesity and central adiposity is an important factor to prevent elevations in inflammatory cytokine levels in diabetic patients.