EURO-MUSCULUS/USPRM basic scanning protocols revisited in children

Chang K., Onat S. S., Lee C., KARA M., Hung C., ÖZÇAKAR L.

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL AND REHABILITATION MEDICINE, vol.52, no.6, pp.887-901, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 52 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.887-901
  • Keywords: Ultrasonography, Musculoskeletal development, Child, Cartilage, Joints, MUSCULOSKELETAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY, ULTRASOUND, HIP
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


High-resolution ultrasound (US) has been widely used in the evaluation of adult musculoskeletal disorders with several established high-quality scanning protocols. Despite the fact that US use is even more advantageous in the pediatric population, normal sonographic images of the major joints are lacking in children. Due to the excessive amount of hyaline cartilage, the bony landmarks can hardly be recognized. In this regard, familiarization with the normal ultrasonographic images is crucial before its wide/prompt application for the differential diagnosis of pediatric musculoskeletal conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this pictorial essay was to demonstrate the normal ultrasonographic images of major joints in normal children in comparison with adults' findings. The images used in this paper have been acquired from a 5-year-old and a 8-year-old child according to the EURO-MUSCULUS/USPRM basic scanning protocols.