Pre-eruptive PTX fluid-conditions of the Afyon Volcanic Complex (Western Anatolia, Turkey): Studies of natural rocks and phase equilibria experiments


KÜLAHCI G. D. , Cichy S. B. , TEMEL A. , Spallanzani R.

Lithos, vol.398-399, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 398-399
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.lithos.2021.106297
  • Title of Journal : Lithos
  • Keywords: Afyon volcanics, Geothermobarometry, Experimental petrology, High-pressure, High-temperature experiments, MENDERES MASSIF, EXTENSIONAL TECTONICS, ALKALINE VOLCANISM, ACTIVE TECTONICS, MAGMA GENESIS, CORE-COMPLEX, EVOLUTION, SUBDUCTION, MANTLE, EASTERN

Abstract

© 2021 Elsevier B.V.This study is trying to understand the pre-eruptive magma storage and crystallization conditions of the Middle Miocene aged, silica-saturated trachytic rocks of the Afyon Volcanic Complex (AVC) in Western Anatolia, Turkey. Those rocks can be divided by their high K2O, K2O/Na2O ratio and Mg# into two groups, namely the intermediate-potassic (IPG) and the ultrapotassic (UPG). Here we are comparing calculated pressure (P) - temperature (T) conditions derived from geothermobarometric calculations of natural samples with results of high-pressure, high-temperature phase equilibria experiments. IPG samples are richer in silica (57–64 wt% SiO2), whereas UPG samples show intermediate SiO2 contents of 56–58 wt%. UPG are having high K2O contents (˃9 wt%), K2O/Na2O ratios (˃10 wt%) and Mg# values (75–77). IPG phenocrysts comprise plagioclase + biotite + amphibole + clinopyroxene ± orthopyroxene ± sanidine ± phlogopite and oxides, while UPG mineralogical assemblage consists of amphibole + phlogopite + clinopyroxene + olivine + sanidine and oxides. IPG and UPG are enriched in Large-Ion Lithophile Elements (LILE), and both have negative anomalies in Nb, Sr, Zr and Ti elements. Additionally, IPG shows positive anomalies in Pb. Both IPG and UPG display enrichment in Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE), while IPG shows a more significant negative anomaly in Eu when compared to UPG. Plagioclase fractionation may play a role in magma generation. In IPG samples Ni and Cr values range between (3.3–18.8 ppm) and (2.6–27.8 ppm), respectively; whereas UPG samples have (119.1–120.7 ppm) Ni and (212.1–219.9 ppm) Cr. Dy/Yb ratios of IPG and UPG are higher than 2 and may indicate that garnet was present in the source. Geothermobarometric calculations for natural IPG clinopyroxene-melt pairs imply higher PT conditions (Dogan-Kulahci et al., 2015), while in this study high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) phase equilibria experiments recreated the natural mineral assemblage at 2–4 kbar, 6–9 km and c. 900 °C. New plagioclase-melt calculations have confirmed lower mean magma storage temperatures, which are closer to the experimental results but still slightly elevated. Thus, trace element results of the natural rocks and experimental data may imply that a deep garnet-bearing magma source mixed with shallower magmas (IPG) was feeding the volcanic eruption.