Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.), vol.106, pp.9-17, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an artificial chemical, and one of the significant external routes of daily BPA exposure is diet. Dietary BPA exposure can be calculated by urinary BPA concentration and dietary recall data. This crosssectional study investigates exclusively breastfeeding women's BPA exposure by urinary total BPA concentration and nutritional records, including the 24 h Dietary Recall (HDR) and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). In this study, we included exclusively breastfeeding, healthy women volunteers (n = 80; 18-40 years), collected spot-morning urine samples and conducted a comprehensive face-to-face survey. Moreover, the women's urine BPA concentration was adjusted according to their urine creatinine concentrations. We assessed dietary BPA intake with the 24HDR and FFQ. Estimated daily BPA exposure according to urinary output volume and urinary creatinine concentration median values were 0.0507 and 0.06 mu g/kg bw/day, respectively. Moreover, dietary BPA daily intake was found to be 0.17 and 0.95 mu g/kg bw/day according to 24HDR data and FFQ data. The milk and dairy product group's and soft drinks group's contributions to the daily intake of BPA were 55.9 % and 25.92 %, respectively. The hazard ratio for BPA exposure was within limits according to references, including US EPA, Health Canada, and EFSA. This study indicates that BPA exposure, based on both total urinary BPA concentration and dietary recall data, was within the recommended daily intake level (4 mu g/kg bw/day). However, further studies are required to understand the influence of seasonal, multicentre, and socioeconomic differences on BPA exposure.