This study evaluates the functional capacity of CD4+ and CD8+ terminally-differentiated effector (TEMRA), central memory (TCM), and effector memory (TEM) cells obtained from the volunteers vaccinated with an aluminum-adjuvanted inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac). The volunteers were followed for T cell immune responses following the termination of a randomized phase III clinical trial. Seven days and four months after the second dose of the vaccine, the memory T cell subsets were collected and stimulated by autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mDCs) loaded with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein S1. Compared to the placebo group, memory T cells from the vaccinated individuals significantly proliferated in response to S1-loaded mDCs. CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cell proliferation was detected in 86% and 78% of the vaccinated individuals, respectively. More than 73% (after a short-term) and 62% (after an intermediate-term) of the vaccinated individuals harbored TCM and/or TEM cells that responded to S1-loaded mDCs by secreting IFN-γ. The expression of CD25, CD38, 4-1BB, PD-1, and CD107a indicated a modulation in the memory T cell subsets. Especially on day 120, PD-1 was upregulated on CD4+ TEMRA and TCM, and on CD8+ TEM and TCM cells; accordingly, proliferation and IFN-γ secretion capacities tended to decline after 4 months. In conclusion, the combination of inactivated whole-virion particles with aluminum adjuvants possesses capacities to induce functional T cell responses.