Objective To evaluate the magnetic resonance elastography (MRE)-derived liver stiffness measurement (LSM), T1 and T2 relaxation times, and hepatobiliary phase images in patients, who developed sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) after oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Methods Thirty-four patients (M/F:22/12) who underwent liver MRI-MRE and received oxaliplatin for colorectal, gastric, and pancreas cancer were included in the study. SOS was diagnosed by Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in 18 patients. MRE-LSM and T1-T2 maps were evaluated. Patients with SOS were grouped according to the amount of reticular hypointensity on the hepatobiliary phase images. Results The mean MRE-LSM in the patients with SOS was 3.14 +/- 0.45 kPa, and the control group was 2.6 +/- 0.5 kPa (p = 0.01). The mean-corrected T1 (cT1) relaxation time was 1181 +/- 151 ms in the SOS group and 1032 +/- 129 ms in the control group (p = 0.005). The mean T2 relaxation time was 50.29 +/- 3.6 ms in the SOS group and 44 +/- 3.9 ms in the control group (p = 0.01). Parenchymal stiffness values were 2.8 +/- 0.22 kPa, 3 +/- 0.33 kPa, and 3.65 +/- 0.28 kPa in patients with mild, moderate, and advanced SOS findings, respectively (p = 0.002). Although cT1 and T2 relaxation times increased with increasing SOS severity, no statistical significance was found. Conclusions We observed increased MRE-LSM in patients with SOS after chemotherapy compared to control group. T1 and T2 relaxation times were also useful in diagnosing SOS but were found inadequate in determining SOS severity. MRE is effective in diagnosing SOS and determining SOS severity in patients who cannot receive contrast agents, and it may be useful in the follow-up evaluation of these patients.