The political praxis of Turkey during the 1930s was determined by Kemalism. Kemalism was Mustafa Kemal's modernization project which allowed Turkish sociological reality to be represented by Republicanism instead of Monarchy. The Kemalist Project and its ideology were also accepted and supported by the intellectuals of the time through a variety of commentaries. One such intellectual was Ali Riza Seyfi (1879-1958), an Ottoman military officer and writer. One of his books, Gazi ve Inkilap (Gazi and the Revolution), was published in 1933, and it confirmed Kemalism based on nationalism and modernization.