Herpes zoster (HZ) can have a substantial impact on quality of life (QoL). The vaccine efficacy (VE) of a recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) was 68.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55.6% to 77.5%) in a phase 3 study in adult autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients (NCT01610414). Herein, we report the impact of RZV on patients' QoL. Autologous HSCT recipients were randomized 1:1 to receive 2 doses of RZV or placebo, given 1 to 2 months apart. QoL was measured by the Short Form Survey-36 and Euro-QoL-5 Dimension at baseline, 1 month, and 1 year postdose 2 and during suspected HZ episodes with the Zoster Brief Pain Inventory (ZBPI). The RZV impact on ZBPI burden of illness and burden of interference scores was estimated. The 2 scores were calculated from the area under the curve (days 0 to 182) of the ZBPI worst pain and ZBPI activities of daily living scores, respectively, assuming a score of 0 for patients not having a confirmed HZ episode. The ZBPI maximum worst pain score was significantly lower in the RZV than placebo group (mean: 5.8 versus 7.1, P = .011). Consequently, the VE estimates for HZ burden of illness (82.5%; 95% CI, 73.6 to 91.4) and burden of interference (82.8%; 95% CI, 73.3 to 92.3) were higher than the HZ VE estimate (ie, 68.2%). RZV showed significantly better QoL scores than placebo 1 week following rash onset among patients with confirmed HZ. In addition to reducing the risk of HZ and its complications, RZV significantly reduced the impact of HZ on patients' QoL in those who developed breakthrough disease. (C) 2019 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.