Objective: Febrile neutropenia (FN) represents a life-threatening complication in hematological malignancies. We aimed to analyze the utility of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels compared with C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) during febrile neutropenia episodes of pediatric patients with leukemia. Methods: Two plasma samples, on day 0 (initial of episode) and day 3 (48-72 h after episode), for VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and VEGF, CRP and PCT were prospectively collected concomitantly during each febrile neutropenic episode between December 2016 and December 2017. The primary outcome was bacteremia and the secondary outcome was intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Results: Twenty-two (28.6%) acute lymphoblastic lymphoma (ALL), seventeen (22.1%) acute myeloblastic lymphoma (AML) patients and thirty-eight (49.3%) control patients with no known underlying disease or fever were included in this study. Of the 39 patients; 16 (41%) had bacteremia. Mean serum sVCAM1 and sICAM1 levels were significantly higher in control group, compared to FN patients (p < 0.001). Mean serum sVCAM2 level was significantly higher in FN patients with bacteremia compared to FN patients without bacteremia (144.97 +/- 70.35 pg/mL vs 85.45 +/- 53.76 pg/mL, p = 0.022). Mean sVCAM1 and 2 levels were higher in FN patients with ICU admission. In this study, we found that sVCAM-1 and VEGF, when combined to CRP and PCT, could predict gram-negative bacteremia in FN episodes of pediatric hematological malignancy. Conclusion: Serum endothelial adhesion molecules, excluding sVCAM-1, cannot predict bacteremia and ICU admission alone in FN patients; but may be associated with clinical outcome when used with PCT and CRP.