The interaction between culture and sex in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions

SHNEOR R., Camgoz S. M. , Karapinar P.

Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, vol.25, pp.781-803, 2013 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 25
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/08985626.2013.862973
  • Journal Name: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.781-803


This study aims to reveal the effect of an interaction between culture and sex on the formation of entrepreneurial intentions, while building on notions of a cultural construction of gender. The study adopts the theory of planned behaviour as the setting for such exploration, as it has been proven to be robust across national contexts. The analysis is based on survey data collected from business students in Norway and Turkey. Both countries were selected as two distinct and opposite cultural constellations in accordance with the dissatisfaction approach to entrepreneurship. Turkey representing a relatively masculine, high power distance, uncertainty avoiding and collectivistic society; while Norway representing the opposite. Results show that Turkish students, regardless of sex, exhibit significantly higher levels of entrepreneurial intentions and self-efficacy. Male students, regardless of national background, exhibit higher levels of entrepreneurial intentions, self-efficacy and social norms. Finally, our study shows that the extent to which males differ from females in terms of their entrepreneurial intentions is contingent on the national cultural context from which they originate.