Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by increased levels of circulating plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), tendon xanthomas, and premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Homozygous FH occurs in only one in a million people. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is clinically characterized by proteinuria, which is marked in the majority of cases and accompanied by nephrotic syndrome, high incidence of hypertension, and progression to renal failure. To our knowledge, we herein report for the first time a case of homozygous FH associated with FSGS. A seven-and-a-half-year-old boy was referred to our hospital due to cutaneous xanthomata and growth retardation. He had multiple nodular yellowish cutaneous xanthomatous lesions each 1 cm in size over his knees and sacral region. Laboratory data included cholesterol level of 1,050 mg/dl, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) 951 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) 29 mg/dl, triglycerides 168 mg/dl, total protein 6.3 g/dl, and albumin 3.2 g/dl. Urinary protein excretion was 78 mg/m(2) per hour. A percutaneous renal biopsy was performed, and histological findings showed FSGS. Treatment with cholestyramine and atorvastatin was unsuccessful in terms of lowering lipids, and he was placed on weekly sessions of plasmapheresis. Total cholesterol was reduced from 1,050 mg/dl to 223 mg/dl, LDL-C from 951 mg/dl to 171 mg/dl, and urinary protein excretion from 78 mg/m(2) per hour to 42 mg/m(2) stop per hour after eight sessions of plasmapheresis. It is our belief that plasmapheresis is a treatment of choice in patients with FSGS associated with FH.