Epidemiology and emerging resistance in bacterial bloodstream infections in patients with hematologic malignancies

Kara O., Zarakolu P., AŞÇIOĞLU HAYRAN S., ETGÜL S., Uz B., BÜYÜKAŞIK Y., ...More

INFECTIOUS DISEASES, vol.47, no.10, pp.686-693, 2015 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 47 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.3109/23744235.2015.1051105
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.686-693


Background: The objective of this study was determine the frequency of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and the causative bacteria and their resistance patterns in patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) in a large tertiary care university hospital in Turkey over a 5-year period. Methods: A total of 2098 patients with HMs with 3703 neutropenic episodes were included. Patients were classifi ed as high-risk (n = 843) and low-risk (n = 1255) groups and evaluated for frequency of BSIs, causative bacteria, and their resistance patterns. Results: The frequency of BSIs was 14.5%. The frequency of gram-negative BSIs in high-risk and low-risk groups was 10.7% and 5.4% (p < 0.001), respectively. The frequency of gram-positive BSIs in high-risk and low-risk groups was 7.0% and 3.9% (p < 0.001), respectively. Gram-negative bacteria predominated (52.6%), with Escherichia coli (17.3%) and Klebsiella spp. (11.0%) as the most frequent organisms. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (10.4%) and Corynebacterium spp. (6.3%) were the most common gram-positive bacteria (35.8%). The rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was 45% for E. coli and 58% for Klebsiella spp. Quinolone resistance was 58% for E. coli and 11% for Klebsiella spp.. The overall frequency of ceftazidime resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 28%, and 87% of Acinetobacter spp. were multidrug-resistant. Of Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 24.8% were resistant to methicillin. Conclusion: The dominating causes of BSIs in patients with HMs in our hospital are resistant gramnegative bacteria, which has made empirical antimicrobial choice a highly challenging issue in this patient population.