University Association for Contemporary European Studies, London, England, 6 - 08 September 2021, pp.1-24
The more technologically advanced, connected and savvy our societies have become, the more open they are to cyber-attacks. The perpetrators are anonymous and the sources of threats are ambiguous in a world where the “speed, scale and intensity” of such threats pertain to the scope, range and complexity of technological advancements. Attacks to hardware as well as software are the new realities of today’s security environment. Ransomwares, digital theft and fraud on the Internet, leaks of sensitive information, illegal access to and improper usage of personal and private data, disinformation campaigns via social media, and paralysing the functioning of critical infrastructures by damaging computer systems and databases are typical examples of cyber threats.
Given the pervasive
nature of digital technologies in today’s world and artificial intelligence
becoming more and more integrated to existing digital systems, defining some
norms for the ethical usage of artificial intelligence has become more urgent.
Especially, norms about the use of cyber power in the new age of artificial
intelligence have to be articulated and more importantly diffused to other
states. Against this background, this paper asks whether the European Union
(EU) can become a normative cyber power. First, this paper gives a brief
overview of some concepts related to cyberspace, such as cyber power, cyber-attack,
and cyber warfare. Then, an analysis of traditional norms associated with the
use of force concerning the literature on European strategic/security culture
is provided. In the third part, the paper introduces a preliminary normative framework,
which includes some regulative norms/principles for cybersecurity and the use
of artificial intelligence in the digital military systems. In this endeavour,
this paper specifically analyses the Commission’s white paper on Artificial
Intelligence published in February 2020 and EU’s cybersecurity strategy for the
digital decade announced in December 2020.