Precise Extraction of Citrus Fruit Trees from a Digital Surface Model Using a Unified Strategy: Detection, Delineation, and Clustering

OK A. Ö. , Ozdarici-Ok A.

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING AND REMOTE SENSING, vol.86, no.9, pp.557-569, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 86 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.14358/pers.86.9.557
  • Page Numbers: pp.557-569


In this study, we present an original unified strategy for the precise extraction of individual citrus fruit trees from single digital surface model (DSM) input data. A probabilistic method combining the circular shape information with the knowledge of the local maxima in the DSM has been used for the detection of the candidate trees. An active contour is applied within each detected region to extract the borders of the objects. Thereafter, all extracted objects are seamlessly divided into clusters considering a new feature data set formed by (1) the properties of trees, (2) planting parameters, and (3) neighborhood relations. This original clustering stage has led to two new contributions: (1) particular objects or clustered structures having distinctive characters and relationships other than the citrus objects can be identified and eliminated, and (2) the information revealed by clustering can be used to recover missing citrus objects within and/or nearby each cluster. The main finding of this research is that a successful clustering can provide valuable input for identifying incorrect and missing information in terms of citrus tree extraction. The proposed strategy is validated in eight test sites selected from the northern part of Mersin province of Turkey. The results achieved are also compared with the state-of-the-art methods developed for tree extraction, and the success of the proposed unified strategy is clearly highlighted.