Greenhouse Gas Emission and Water Footprint of the National Diet in Turkey: Results from Turkey Nutrition and Health Survey 2017

İlhan A., Yeniçağ R., Yalçın E., Öztürk E., Karahan S., Rakıcıoğlu N.

SUSTAINABILITY, vol.15, pp.1-13, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su15129768
  • Journal Name: SUSTAINABILITY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-13
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The study aimed to assess and characterize the sustainability of the national diet in Turkey and its association with diet quality, dietary requirements, and sociodemographic factors. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h recalls from the Turkey Nutrition and Health Survey 2017 (TNHS- 2017) (n = 12,527). The environmental footprints were assessed with two environmental indicators: greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) and water footprint (WF). Diet quality was assessed using the diet quality index (DQI) and dietary diversity score (DDS). The dietary GHGEs was 3.21 ± 2.07 kg CO2-eq/person/day and the dietary total WF was 2832 ± 1378 L/person/day. The DQI and DDS were 62.26 ± 8.28 and 6.66 ± 1.31, respectively. Total energy intake was significantly higher in the highest GHGEs and total WF tertiles (2238 ± 722 and 2383 ± 701 kcal, respectively) compared to lower GHGEs and total WF tertiles. Individuals with higher diet-related GHGEs and total WF had a higher daily intake of nutrients with the exception of the percentages of energy supplied from carbohydrates, percentages of meeting nutrients according to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), DQI (excluding DQI total, moderation, and overall balance score), and DDS scores (p < 0.001). GHGEs and total WF value of the national diet in Turkey are lower than the world average. The results would help develop dietary guidelines to encourage sustainable dietary choices.