EUROPEAN RADIOLOGY, vol.32, no.2, pp.981-989, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Objectives To assess imaging features of primary renal sarcomas in order to better discriminate them from non-sarcoma renal tumors. Methods Adult patients diagnosed with renal sarcomas from 1995 to 2018 were included from 11 European tertiary referral centers (Germany, Belgium, Turkey). Renal sarcomas were 1:4 compared to patients with non-sarcoma renal tumors. CT/MRI findings were assessed using 21 predefined imaging features. A random forest model was trained to predict "renal sarcoma vs. non-sarcoma renal tumors" based on demographics and imaging features. Results n = 34 renal sarcomas were included and compared to n = 136 non-sarcoma renal tumors. Renal sarcomas manifested in younger patients (median 55 vs. 67 years, p < 0.01) and were more complex (high RENAL score complexity 79.4% vs. 25.7%, p < 0.01). Renal sarcomas were larger (median diameter 108 vs. 43 mm, p < 0.01) with irregular shape and ill-defined margins, and more frequently demonstrated invasion of the renal vein or inferior vena cava, tumor necrosis, direct invasion of adjacent organs, and contact to renal artery or vein, compared to non-sarcoma renal tumors (p < 0.05, each). The random forest algorithm yielded a median AUC = 93.8% to predict renal sarcoma histology, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 90.4%, 76.5%, and 93.9%, respectively. Tumor diameter and RENAL score were the most relevant imaging features for renal sarcoma identification. Conclusion Renal sarcomas are rare tumors commonly manifesting as large masses in young patients. A random forest model using demographics and imaging features shows good diagnostic accuracy for discrimination of renal sarcomas from non-sarcoma renal tumors, which might aid in clinical decision-making.