The present investigation is aimed at the biomedical aspects of nanomaterials in medicine and health sciences. Synthesis of nanomaterials can be categorized into three main sections based on their system designation, viz. nanocolloidal systems, surface modi. cation of the biomaterials at molecular level, and nanodevices. An overview of functionalized nanomaterials, devices, and systems in drug and gene delivery, controlled release systems, molecular imaging and diagnostics, cardiac therapy, dental care, orthopedics, and targeted cancer therapy is presented. We further present some preliminary results of our investigation of biodegradable polymeric nanospheres and nanofibers with significant applications in health and medicine.