Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-15, and heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) are molecules that have significant metabolic effects on glucose and fat metabolism and a cell's stress response. The aim of this study is to determine serum levels of these molecules in runners after a long-distance trail run. Serum IL-15 levels after such endurance events have not been investigated yet. Blood samples were collected from 37 athletes (11 female, 26 male) before and after a 35-km trail run, with a total climb of 940 m. Serum was obtained from the samples, and IL-6, IL-15, and Hsp72 levels were measured from using the sandwich ELISA method. The athletes completed the race in 308.3 +/- 37.4 min on average. After the race, the mean serum IL-6, IL-15, and Hsp72 concentrations increased 13.2-fold, 2.22-fold, and 1.6-fold, respectively (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.039, respectively). This is the first study to demonstrate the increase in serum IL-15 levels following an acute endurance exercise. In addition to IL-15, we report that IL-6 and soluble Hsp72 levels also increased significantly following a 35-km trail run. Since these molecules are involved in regulating glucose and fat metabolism, significant increases of IL-6, IL-15, and soluble Hsp72 may have health benefits that may be associated with long-distance trail runs, which are becoming more popular worldwide.